Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella)

Presence of the Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) in the Sea of Fujairah, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean

By : Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf

Article Reference :  Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). Presence of the Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) in the Sea of Fujairah, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 154, October 2017, pp. 1-19. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://marine-life-uae.webs.com/

The Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) from the Sea of Fujairah, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by Divemaster Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 31.12.2016. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1834215446831832&set=pb.100007301827082.-2207520000.1488641050.&type=3&theater

On Saturday 31.12.2016, PADI Divemaster Ola Mostafa Khalaf managed to shoot magnificent photos of the Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) from the Car Cemetery Sea Ground, 24 meter deep in the Sea of Fujairah, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean.

The Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) from the Sea of Fujairah, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by Divemaster Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 31.12.2016. http://marine-life-uae.webs.com/

Hypselodoris pulchella [Risbecia pulchella] (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830)

Taxonomy: 
Class: Gastropoda  Cuvier, 1797 
Subclass: Heterobranchia  J.E. Gray, 1840 
Clade: Euthyneura  Spengel, 1881 
Superorder: Nudipleura  Wägele & Willan, 2000 
Order: Nudibranchia  Cuvier, 1817 
Suborder: Euctenidiacea  Tardy, 1970 
Infraorder: Doridacea  Thiele, 1931 
Superfamily: Doridoidea  Rafinesque, 1815 
Family: Chromodorididae  Bergh, 1891 
Genus: Hypselodoris  Stimpson, 1855 
Species: Hypselodoris pulchella (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) (www.medslugs.de)

The Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) from the Sea of Fujairah, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by Divemaster Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 31.12.2016. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10155020653474831&set=a.10155020646989831.1073742024.560519830&type=3&theater

The Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) is a species of sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Chromodorididae.

Distribution

This species was described from the Red SeaHypselodoris pulchella is found in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean from Kenya and Tanzania, the ComoresRéunion to Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Philippines (Wikipedia).

Description

Originally described from the Red Sea, where it coexists with the similarly coloured Risbecia ghardaqana and Chromodoris annulata. In the western Pacific there is another species, Risbecia imperialis, which differs externally only in the absence of the purple border to the foot and the smudged purple reticulate pattern found on the dorsum of this species (Sea Slug Forum).

Gohar & Aboul-Ela (1957) studied this species in some detail, and the following paragraph summarises their description of the species. It grows to 10 cm fully extended. The mantle is of a somewhat opaque creamy white, marked by a bluish purple tinge in irregular areas on the mantle and sides of the foot. All the dorsal surface of the mantle and the foot is covered with yellowish orange spots of irregular shape and different sizes. The mantle margin is fringed with a thin border of bright bluish violet. The posterior tip of the foot may have a similar border. The front of the mantle forms a veil which continuously waves up and down when crawling. The rhinophores have a white stem and blue leaves. The gills are simple and the colour of the edge can vary from violet to orange yellow in a single specimen. The gills are often branched and wave rhythmically from side to side. When recently spawned, the egg ribbon is reddish orange and it is attached along one edge in a spiral, the free edge being slightly wavy (Sea Slug Forum).

The Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) from the Sea of Fujairah, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by Divemaster Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 31.12.2016. http://marine-life-uae.webs.com/

The 'trailing' behaviour is found in all species of Risbecia, where pairs of animals are often found following each other in single file, the second animal in the line usually touching the 'tail' of the one in front (Sea Slug Forum).

Hypselodoris pulchella is a long slender species with a body size up to 80 mm or even 110 mm. The mantle edges are well extended along the body, with a thin bluish border. The mantle and the foot are creamy white, covered with numerous small rounded yellowish-orange spots of different sizes. There is always a diffuse pattern of pale violet-brown on the back; this is absent in the similar species Hypselodoris ghardaqana. The sensory tentacles (the antennae like rhinophores) are bluish. The main respiratory organs (gills) vary from bluish to orange. These sea slugs usually raise and lower rhythmically their head, vibrating their gills. They often show a characteristic 'trailing' behaviour, with two individuals following closely each other. This species feeds on sponges (Wikipedia).

Habitat

This benthic species can be found at a depth of 3–30 meters (Wikipedia).

The Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) from the Sea of Fujairah, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by Divemaster Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 31.12.2016. http://marine-life-uae.webs.com/

References and Internet Websites :

Arora, Michael (16.12.2005). Chromodoris annulata ? from Bahrain. Sea Slug Forum. http://www.seaslugforum.net/message/15481 
Barry, Melinda (06.06.2002). Chromodoris annulata from United Arab Emirates. Sea Slug Forum. http://www.seaslugforum.net/message/7162 Bertsch, H. & A. Kerstitch (1984) Distribution and radular morphology of various nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) from the Gulf of California, Mexico. The Veliger, 26: 264-273. 
Bouchet, P. (2012). Hypselodoris pulchella. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=597870 on 2012-06-09 
Bouchet P., Rocroi J.-P., Frýda J., Hausdorf B., Ponder W., Valdés Á. & Warén A. (2005). Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks) 47 (1-2): 1-397. ISBN 3925919724. ISSN 0076-2997. Debelius, H. & Kuiter, R.H. (2007). Nudibranchs of the world. ConchBooks, Frankfurt, 360 pp. ISBN 978-3-939767-06-0  
Gastropods. Hypselodoris pulchella. http://www.gastropods.com/5/Shell_50595.shtml 
Gbif. Hypselodoris pulchella (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828). www.gbif.org/species/6788165 
Gohar, H. A. F., & I. A. Aboul-Ela (1957). The development of three chromodorids (with the description of a new species). Publications of the Marine Biological Station, Al-Ghardaqa, Egypt, 9: 203-228, pls. 1-5. 
Gosliner, T.M., Behrens, D.W. & Valdes, A. (2008) Indo-Pacific Nudibranchs and seaslugs. A field guide to the world's most diverse fauna. Sea Challengers Natural History Books, Washington, 426 pp. 
Houben, Anouk (September 28, 2007). Chromodoris hintuanensis from Sri Lanka. Sea Slug Forum. http://www.seaslugforum.net/message/20838 Johnson, Rebecca Fay & Terrence M. Gosliner (2012). Traditional Taxonomic Groupings Mask Evolutionary History: A Molecular Phylogeny and New Classification of the Chromodorid Nudibranchs.  
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0033479

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Khalaf, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). Dissertation, Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv.
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) in the Science and Natural History Museum, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 15. Fifth Year. July 1987. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Germany. pp. 1-8. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthkuwait.htm
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Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the State of Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 16. Fifth Year. Safar 1408 AH. September 1987 AD. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 1-7.
Khalaf, Norman Ali (1989). Qa’ema li-ba’d Asmak Al-Kuwait fi Al-Mathaf Al-‘Ilmi Bi-Dawlat Al-Kuwait (A List of some Kuwaiti Fishes from the Science & Natural History Museum, State of Kuwait). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 19. Seventh Year. December 1989. Bonn 2-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 3. (In Arabic and English).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part One). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 23, Ninth Year, July 1991. pp. 1-12.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Two). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 24, Ninth Year, August 1991. pp. 1-10.
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Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). Notes on the Biological Ecology of the Marshes in Southern Iraq. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 29, Tenth Year, September 1992. pp. 1-9. (In Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). The United Nations Ecological Report confirms: The Regime of Saddam is destroying the Marshes (Al-Ahwar) Ecosystem. Sawt Al-Kuwait International Newspaper. Saturday 17 October 1992, 21 Rabi’e Al-Thani 1412. pp. 15. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B. (1993). Al-Mushkilatan Al-Ma’eyah wa Al-Bi’eyah fi Al-Dafah Al-Gharbiyah wa Qita’ Ghaza Al-Muhtalain (Ka-Juzu’ min Al-Sharq Al-Awsat) [The Water and the Ecological Problems in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip (As Part of the Middle East)]. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 31. Eleventh Year. December 1993. Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 1- 29. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic).
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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B. (1995). Alasmak fi Filistin (Die Fische von Palästina / The Fishes of Palestine). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 33. Thirteenth Year. December 1995. Bonn, Germany. pp.1-35. (In Arabic). Khalaf, Ali Bassam (1997). Amir Al-Bahar Al-Arabi (The Arabian Sea Prince) Shihab Al-Deen Ahmad Bin Majed. Magazin der Akademie. Nummer 1. Zu Elke’da 1417 H, Maerz 1997. König Fahad Akademie – Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Deutschland. pp. 23-24. (in Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2001). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Wale und Delphine. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Wale_und_Delphine/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten / Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition), August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Der Komoren-Quastenflosser (Latimeria chalumnae) und der Manado-Quastenflosser (Latimeria menadoensis). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 38. Twenty Third Year. February 2005. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Story of Prophet Musa (Moses) and the Fish. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 14-15.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Moses Perch (Lutjanus russelli, Bleeker 1849). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 15.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Fish of Musa (Samak Musa). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 16.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Samak Al-Luchs (Al-Hamoor) or the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in Palestine (Mediterranean Sea) and the United Arab Emirates (Arabian Gulf). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 1-6.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Jaffa (Yaffa): The History of an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 7-8.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea Monster of Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 8.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Jewfish (Epinephelus itajara) / Der Riesenzackenbarsch oder Judenfisch (Epinephelus itajara). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 9-12.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Arabian Freshwater Fishes in the Arabia’s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 40, Twenty-third Year, April 2005. pp. 1-9. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://emirati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/arabianfreshwaterfish.htm
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (Gründer) (seit Juni 2005). Der Quastenflosser: Coelacanth Latimeria Yahoo! Deutschland Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Quastenflosser/
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Koran Angelfish (Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Cuvier, 1831). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 44. Twenty-third Year. August 2005. Jamada Alakhira 1426. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8. http://koran-angelfish.webs.com/
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. ISBN 3-00-014835-3. Erste Auflage / First Edition, August 2005: 376 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/aquaticaarabica.htm
Khalaf, N.A.B. (2005). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). [M.Sc. Dissertation in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv]. In: Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage, August 2005. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 28-93.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006, 2007). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. In: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006, 2007. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. http://ipsnewsite.mysite4now.com/journals.aspx?id=7323&jid=1&href=fulltext
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_85658724_59480041_deutsch.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit August 2007). Haie – Sharks Yahoo! Deutschland Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Haie_Sharks/
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/

The Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) from the Sea of Fujairah, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean. Photo by Divemaster Ola Mostafa Khalaf. 31.12.2016. http://marine-life-uae.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin حيوانات فلسطين (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year, September 2007 CE, Sha’ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) caught off the Kuwaiti Coast: The Second Record from the State of Kuwait, Arabian / Persian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/whalesharkinkuwait.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Rhiniodon typus Smith, 1828 or Rhincodon typus Smith, 1829: The Story of a Scientific Name. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 21. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://whale-shark.webs.com/rhiniodontypus.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach, Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 23-26. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://whale-shark.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus 1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). https://de.groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/Fauna_Palaestina/conversations/messages/37 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008, Thu Al-Qi’ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea-palaestina.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). A Longcomb Sawfish (Pristis zijsron Bleeker, 1851) caught off the coast of Dibba, United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 88, April 2009, Rabi’e Al Thani 1430 AH. pp. 1-14. http://dibba-sawfish.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr.Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Blind Cave Fish Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 90, June 2009, Jumada Al-Akhera 1430 AH. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://emirati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Oreochromis mossambicus bassamkhalafi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Mozambique Tilapia Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 92, August 2009, Sha’ban 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://emirati-tilapia.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Bowmouth Guitarfish (Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider, 1801) at Sharjah Aquarium, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 93, September 2009, Ramadan 1430 AH. pp. 1-18. http://bowmouth-guitarfish-emirates.webs.com/bowmouthguitarfishuae.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) Records from the United Arab Emirates between 1989 - 2009. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 94, October 2009, Shawal 1430 AH. pp. 1-28. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
http://whale-shark.webs.com/whalesharkinemirates.htm 

Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist : The Scientific References (1980-2009). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm 

Khalaf, Dr. Norman Ali (Zoologist) (2011). A note on the Coelacanth of Kuwait. Readers’ Letters, National Geographic Al Arabiya Magazine. April 2011, Volume 2, Number 7, pp. 8. (In Arabic). http:[email protected]/10122383976/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013: A New Freshwater Doctor Fish Subspecies from Wadi Qana Nature Reserve, Salfit Governorate, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 103, July 2013, Ramadan 1434 AH. pp. 1-25. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/palestine-doctor-fish 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Taxon Profile: Subspecies Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013. BioLib.cz. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1059609/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Palestine Doctor Fish (Garra rufa wadiqana Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/80813 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Freshwater Fishes in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 104, August 2013, Shawal 1434 AH. pp. 1-17. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). † Coelacanthus sharjah Khalaf, 2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from Sharjah Natural History and Botanical Museum, Sharjah, Emirate of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 106, October 2013, Thu Al Hijja 1434 AH. pp. 18–38. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthussharjah.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Taxon Profile: Species Sharjah Coelacanth Coelacanthus sharjah Khalaf, 2013. BioLib. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1068520/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Sharjah Coelacanth († Coelacanthus sharjah Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/95987/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). † Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 107, November 2013, Muharram 1435 AH. pp. 30-38. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/macropomoidespalaestina.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Taxon Profile: Species Palestine Coelacanth Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 †. BioLib. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1075889/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Palestine Coelacanth († Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/97239 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). A Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) Model at the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig in Bonn, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 111, March 2014, Jumada Al Oula 1435 AH. pp. 1–9. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthmuseumkoenig.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) at the Educational Science Museum, Kuwait City, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 112, April 2014, Jumada Al Akhera 1435 AH. pp. 1–10. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/coelacanthkuwait2013.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). Facebook. Biodiversity Arabia. Arabian Killifish. 19.04.2014. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10152317046064831&set=p.10152317046064831&type=1&pnref=story 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). Coelacanth Fish Fossils † Macropomoides orientalis Woodward, 1942 from Lebanon. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 113, May 2014, Rajab 1435 AH. pp. 1–26. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://quastenflosser.webs.com/macropomoidesorientalis.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. 456 Pages (English Part 378 Pages and the Arabic Part 78 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). † Macropomoides palaestina Khalaf, 2013 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from the Anthracothere Hill in Al-Naqab, Palestine. In: Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. pp. 126 - 138. Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). † Macropoma libanus Khalaf, 2015 : A New Coelacanth Fish Fossil Species from Lebanon. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 - 6288. Number 122, February 2015. pp. 12–27. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-lebanon.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (February 2015). Taxon Profile: Species Roundhead-Roundtail Lebanon Coelacanth † Macropoma libanus Khalaf, 2014. BioLib. Biological Library. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1141461/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (February 2015). Roundhead Roundtail Lebanon Coelacanth († Macropoma libanus Khalaf, 2015). EOL. Encyclopedia of Life. http://eol.org/collections/114210 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2015). Fauna Palaestina – Part Five. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2016 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Fünf. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2016. ISBN 978-9950-383-92-0. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2015, Ramadan 1436 H. 448 pp. (English Part 304 Pages and the Arabic Part 144 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (Photo) (26.11.2015). Flickr. Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari) gliding through the sea waters of Dubai Creek, Dubai, UAE. 26.11.2015. https:[email protected]/22773056933 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (Video) (26.11.2015). YouTube Video. Spotted Eagle Ray at Dubai Creek 26.11.2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C1jL5CK7WnE 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). A Fish Fossil at the Notre Dame de Sion Ecce Homo Convent - Antonia Fortress, Old City, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288). Number 132, December 2015. pp. 1-15. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/fish-fossil-notre-dame-sion 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Arabian Killifish (Aphanius dispar Rüppel, 1829). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178 – 6288). Number 137, May 2016. pp. 1-10. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://palestine-fishes.webs.com/arabian-killifish 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The First Palestinian Wildlife Photography Exhibition in the Gaza Strip in November 2014. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 138, June 2016. pp. 1-35. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/gazawildlifephoto2014.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). Haywanat Falastin (Fauna of Palestine) حيوانات فلسطين . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 144, December 2016, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/fauna-of-palestine-arabic 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758) Nest Adoption at the Reef Dive Resort, Mataking Island, State of Sabah, Federation of Malaysia in 2015. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 149, May 2017, pp. 1-30. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.sea-turtles-1.webs.com 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). The Oman Clownfish (Amphiprion omanensis Allen & Mee, 1991) and the Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae Bleeker, 1853) from the Shark Island Coral Reefs in Khor Fakkan, East Coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 150, June 2017, pp. 1-29. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/clownfish 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa (2017). The Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari Euphrasén, 1790) from Dubai, United Arab Emirates and Umm Al-Rashrash (Eilat), Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 151, July 2017, pp. 1-19. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/spotted-eagle-ray 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa (2017). Whale vertebra from a stranded Whale in 1965 on the beach of Qidfa Village, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 153, September 2017, pp. 1-6. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://cetacea.webs.com/whale-vertebrae-qidfa-uae 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Mostafa & Ola Mostafa Esmail Mostafa Khalaf (2017). Presence of the Yellowish-Orange Spotted Chromodorid Nudibranch (Risbecia pulchella [Hypselodoris pulchella] Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830) in the Sea of Fujairah, Gulf of Oman, Arab Sea, Indian Ocean. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 154, October 2017, pp. 1-19. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://marine-life-uae.webs.com/ 

Khalaf, Ola (31.12.2016). Nudibranch Chromodoris annulata Photo. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1834215446831832&set=pb.100007301827082.-2207520000.1488819431.&type=3&theater 

Lavi, Yoav (05.10.2009). Chromodoris annulata from Mediterranean coast of Israel. Sea Slug Forum. http://www.seaslugforum.net/message/22678 Medslugs. Hypselodoris pulchella (Rüppell & Leuckart,1830) [Doris]. http://www.medslugs.de 

Messruther, William (22.09.2008). Re: Chromodoris annulata from Gulf of Oman. Sea Slug Forum. http://www.seaslugforum.net/message/21896 Neal, Lawrence (04.05.2010). Re: Chromodoris annulata colour from the Persian Gulf. Sea Slug Forum. http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/23605 Pinterest. Nudibranch Chromodorid. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/50665564529434654/ 

Quitzau, Harro (May 1, 2003). Chromodoris hintuanensis ? from Thailand. Sea Slug Forum. http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/9692 

Rudman, W.B. (1973). Chromodorid opisthobranch Mollusca from the Indo-West Pacific. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 52(3): 175-199.
Rudman, W.B. (1984) The Chromodorididae (Opisthobranchia: Mollusca) of the Indo-West Pacific: a review of the genera. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 81: 115-273.
Rudman, W.B. (1987). The Chromodorididae (Opisthobranchia: Mollusca) of the Indo-West Pacific: Chromodoris epicuria, C. aureopurpurea, C. annulata, C. coi and Risbecia tryoni colour groups. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 90: 305-407. 

Rudman, W.B., (11.04.1999). Chromodoris annulata Eliot, 1904. In: Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. http://www.seaslugforum.net/factsheet/chroannu Rudman, W.B. (2003, April 8). Risbecia pulchella (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828). [In] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney.

Rüppell E. & Leuckart F.S. (1828-1830). Mollusca [in] Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Afrika von Eduard Rüppell. 1. Abth. Zoologie. 5. Neue wirbellose Thiere des Rothen Meers. Frankfurt, H.L. Brönner pp. 1-22, pl. 1-12 [1828], pp. 23-47 [probably 1830], page(s): 32, plate IX, Figure 5.  
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/114235#page/349/mode/1up.  

Rüppell, Wilhelm Peter Eduard Simon, & F. S. Leuckart (1831). [for 1828]. Mollusca. In: Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Afrika von Eduard Ruppell Erste Abtheilung Zoologie Neue wirbellose Thiere des Rothen Meers, pp. 15-47, pls. 1-12. [Nudibranchia pp. 15-18, 27-37, pls. 4-5, 8-11]. 

Sea Slug Forum. Chromodoris annulata Eliot, 1904. http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/chroannu 

Sea Slug Forum. Risbecia pulchella (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1828). http://www.seaslugforum.net/risbpulc.htm 

Tapeh, Mahdi Moradi Och (03.05.2010). Chromodoris annulata colour from the Persian Gulf. Sea Slug Forum. http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/23600 

Vine, P. (1986). Red Sea Invertebrates. Immel Publishing, London. 224 pp. Wikipedia. Goniobranchus annulatus. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goniobranchus_annulatus 

Wikipedia. Hypselodoris pulchella. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypselodoris_pulchella 

World Register of Marine Species. WoRMS taxon details. Chromodoris annulata Eliot, 1904. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=209592 

World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). WoRMS taxon details. Hypselodoris pulchella (Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830). http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=597870